In the reference work of (Walsham and Sahay, 1999), they applied ANT for the analytical purpose of GIS implementation in district level administration of India. The objective of this study was to identify the degree of penetration of IT use in an Indian district, in addition, the reason of success or failure of the GIS projects. In their study, they found that there is a lack of aligned interest among different actors, such as actors who develop GIS technology in western countries, and one who uses that technology in India. They reported that GIS developers inscribe their interest in the technology according to their point of view, because of that the cross-cultural and socio-technical conflict arises during the implementation time. As a result, the lack of aligned interest among actors leads to the inefficient implementation of GIS technology for district level administration in India.
Likewise, based on 'VIEWS' ICT artifacts are conceptualized as nominal view (ICT not specified explicitly), tool view (means to achieve something), computational view (technology, algorithm, model, codes), proxy view (ICT as economic capital, ICT as a knowledge enabler), ensemble view (socially embedded system). Authors further argued that ICT impacts also can be conceptualized into three different levels such as first-order or primary effect, second-order or secondary effect, and third-order or tertiary effect. The primary effect is the substitution of old technology by the new (internet, mobile phones, etc.). The secondary effect is the increase in phenomena enabled by new technology (increase in communication), and the tertiary effect is the generation of new technology related business and societal change. Authors finally inferred that to achieve tertiary level developmental impact, ICT artifacts in development policies should move up from simple tool and computational views to ensemble and proxy views.
ICT4D research can use qualitative, quantitative, or mixed research methods. Quantitative methods are helpful to identify causal relationships, and qualitative methods can be used to build theories explaining complicated phenomena. For detail readings on research methods visit: http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/
De’, R. (2009). Caste Structures and E-Governance in a Developing Country. In M. Wimmer, H. Scholl, M. Janssen & R. Traunmüller (Eds.), Electronic Government (Vol. 5693, pp. 40-53): Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
Orlikowski, W. J. (1993). CASE Tools as Organizational Change: Investigating Incremental and Radical Changes in Systems Development. MIS Quarterly, 17(3), 309-340.
Walsham, G., & Sahay, S. (2006). Research on Information Systems in Developing Countries: Current Landscape and Future Prospects. Information Technology for Development, 12(1), 7-24.